To my knowledge, this is the first book that deals with the very early period of the conflict between Jesus and authoritative Jewish teachers, asking how it was that Jesus came to be on their radars in the first place. Most historical Jesus studies consider the controversy as a starting point itself that eventually led to the crucifixion. This is correct, but overlooks the interesting issues involving how there came to be a conflict at all. How is it that Jesus, unlike thousands of Second Temple Jews, came to gain their attention and concern? Several chapters function as a more accessible version of the argument I forwarded in Jesus’ Literacy: Scribal Culture and the Teacher from Galilee concerning the historical Jesus’ scribal-literate status. But this book moves beyond that argument and considers the broader exegetical and historical implications of it, specifically as it relates to the controversy narratives where Jesus argues with scribes, Pharisees, and others.